Mechanisms of lampricide toxicity

Sea lamprey invaded the Great Lakes in the early 20th century, and continue to threaten populations of native fishes. Control of these parasitic invaders involves regular application of specialized pesticides - TFM and niclosamide - to nursery streams containing lamprey larvae. 

TFM, and likely niclosamide, works by short-circuiting tissue mitochondria. Larvae treated with lampricides quickly exhaust energetic stores and may experience oxidative stress. The full toxic effects of these chemicals is an area of active investigation.


My postdoctoral work investigates how niclosamide and TFM-niclosamide mixes affect the mitochondria of native fish and sea lamprey. What is the mechanism of toxicity of these agents, and what does it have to do with oxidative stress?

Key papers in this research area:

Exploiting the physiology of lampreys to refine methods of control and conservation

(More to come!)


Intermittent Cycles of Hypoxia

Periods of low oxygen are a fact of life for many fishes, and physiologists have a good understanding of how fish cope with stable, prolonged periods of low oxygen. However, we have much poorer understanding of how fish cope with repeated cycles between low and high oxygen, even though we know so called patterns of 'intermittent hypoxia' are very common in the wild. 


My PhD thesis investigated how killifish cope with low oxygen, and how these fish use different strategies to deal with daily cycles of hypoxia-reoxygenation compared to constant exposure to low oxygen conditions.

Key papers in this research area:

Distinct physiological strategies are used to cope with constant hypoxia and intermittent hypoxia in killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus)

Distinct metabolic adjustments arise from acclimation to constant hypoxia and intermittent hypoxia in estuarine killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus)

Interspecific variation in hypoxia tolerance and hypoxia acclimation responses in killifish from the family Fundulidae

Hypoxia acclimation alters reactive oxygen species homeostasis and oxidative status in estuarine killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus)

Rapid and reversible modulation of blood haemoglobin content during diel cycles of hypoxia in killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus)

Aside from killifish, I've also worked in this area in the context of intertidal plainfin midshipman fish from the west coast of North America, which endure long periods of emersion during the breeding season.

Key papers in this research area (in collaboration with the Balshine lab, McMaster University):

Parental males of the plainfin midshipman are physiologically resilient to the challenges of the intertidal zone

Nesting on high: reproductive and physiological consequences of living in the intertidal zone

killifish in respirometer jpg.jpg

Other projects

I'm broadly interested in how animals, especially fish, cope with both natural and human-generated environmental challenges. Check out my Academic Publications to learn more about the cool side projects I've worked on!